What is Groupthink?
Symptoms of Groupthink
Examples of Groupthink: Past and Present
Groupthink and the News Media
Review the following consequences of groupthink and consider how many of them apply to the Bush administration’s handling of the ‘war on terrorism’ and the issues related to Iraq and Saddam Hussein:
a) incomplete survey of alternatives.
b) incomplete survey of objectives.
c) failure to examine risks of preferred choice.
d) failure to reappraise initially rejected alternatives.
e) poor information search.
f) selective bias in processing information at hand.
g) failure to work out contingency plans.
h) low probability of successful outcome.
Remedies for Groupthink
Decision experts have determined that groupthink may be prevented by adopting some of the following measures:
a) The leader should assign the role of critical evaluator to each member.
b) The leader should avoid stating preferences and expectations at the outset.
c) Each member of the group should routinely discuss the groups' deliberations with a trusted associate and report back to the group on the associate's reactions.
d) One or more experts should be invited to each meeting on a staggered basis. The outside experts should be encouraged to challenge views of the members.
e) At least one articulate and knowledgeable member should be given the role of devil's advocate (to question assumptions and plans).
f) The leader should make sure that a sizable block of time is set aside to survey warning signals from rivals; leader and group construct alternative scenarios of rivals' intentions.